# 7: Qualitative Analysis of Group III Ions (Experiment) (2023)

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##### Objectives
• To follow a classic qualitative analysis scheme to separate and identify the ions in a known mixture of Group III cations
• To apply this scheme to identify the Group III cations present in an unknown sample.

Cations are typically divided into Groups, where each group shares a common reagent that can be used for selective precipitation. In an earlier lab you performed a qualitative analysis of the Group I cations, all of which formed insoluble chlorides upon the addition of HCl (aq). In today’s lab you will analyze solutions of the Group III cations, which include $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$, $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$, $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$, and $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$. All the Group III cations form insoluble sulfides or hydroxides in a basic solution saturated with $$\ce{H2S}$$. The procedure will be similar to the previous Group I analysis experiment in that you will first prepare and analyze a known mixture of all four cations as a positive control. You will then analyze an unknown sample containing one, two, three or all four of the Group III cations. Your objective will be to identify which Group III cation(s) are present in your unknown sample.

Remember that in qualitative analysis the ions in a given group are first separated from each other, and then a characteristic test is performed for each ion in order to confirm the presence of that ion.

### Separation and Confirmation of Group III Cations

An aqueous mixture of $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$, $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$, $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$, and $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$ is first treated with a mixture of $$\ce{NaOH}$$ and $$\ce{NaOCl}$$ solutions. This causes the iron and nickel cations to precipitate out as hydroxide salts, while the chromium and aluminum cations remain in solution:

$\ce{Fe^{3+} (aq) + 3 OH^{-} (aq) -> Fe(OH)3 (s) } \label{1}$

$\ce{Ni^{2+} (aq) + 2 OH^{-} (aq) -> Ni(OH)2 (s) } \label{2}$

$\ce{2 Cr^{3+} (aq) + 3 OCl^{-} (aq) + 10 OH^{-} (aq) -> 2 CrO4^{2-} (aq) + 3 Cl^{-} (aq) + 5 H2O (l) } \label{3}$

$\ce{Al^{3+} (aq) + 4 OH^{-} (aq) -> Al(OH)4^{-} (aq) }\label{4}$

Note in the last two equations above that $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$ is oxidized to the soluble $$\ce{CrO4^{2-}}$$ ion while $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ forms a soluble complex ion with $$\ce{OH^{-}}$$. Neither iron nor nickel form hydroxo-complex ions and therefore precipitate out as solids. The resulting mixture is centrifuged and then decanted, separating the solids ($$\ce{Fe(OH)3}$$ and $$\ce{Ni(OH)2}$$) from the supernatant solution (containing $$\ce{CrO4^{2-}}$$ and $$\ce{Al(OH)4^{-}}$$).

(Video) Experiment No 7 Analysis of Group III Cations from an Unknown Solution

In order to separate the chromium ions from the aluminum ions in the aqueous supernatant solution, the solution is first acidified in order to destroy the aluminum hydroxo-complex ion:

$\ce{Al(OH)4^{-} (aq) + 4 H^{+} (aq) -> Al^{3+} (aq) + 4 H2O (l) }\label{5}$

Next the solution is made just basic enough to precipitate out the aluminum as its hydroxide salt, but not so basic that it would remain in solution as the hydroxo-complex ion. This is accomplished by slowly adding aqueous ammonia:

$\ce{Al^{3+} (aq) + 3 NH3 (aq) + 3 H2O (l) -> Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 NH4^{+} (aq) } \label{6}$

The supernatant solution containing $$\ce{CrO4^{2-}}$$ can then be decanted from the white gelatinous precipitate which is the solid $$\ce{Al(OH)3}$$. A positive confirmation for $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ is accomplished by dissolving the solid precipitate in acetic acid and adding the reagent catechol violet, which reacts with $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ to produce a blue solution.

In order to confirm the presence of chromium in the supernatant solution, aqueous BaCl2 is added to it. This results in the formation of a finely divided, pale yellow precipitate of barium chromate:

$\ce{Ba^{2+} (aq) + CrO4^{2-} (aq) -> BaCrO4 (s) } \label{7}$

Recall that a mixture of solid precipitates of $$\ce{Fe(OH)3}$$ and $$\ce{Ni(OH)2}$$ is collected at the beginning of this analysis scheme. The next step is to separate them. First the hydroxide precipitates are dissolved in nitric acid:

$\ce{Ni(OH)2 (s) + 2 H^{+} (aq) -> Ni^{2+} (aq) + 2 H2O (l) } \label{8}$

$\ce{Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3 H^{+} (aq) -> Fe^{3+} (aq) + 3 H2O (l) } \label{9}$

The acidified solution is then made basic by adding aqueous ammonia. Once the solution has become basic, the excess ammonia will react with $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$ to form an aqueous complex ion while the $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$ will precipitate out once more as red $$\ce{Fe(OH)3}$$ since $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$ does not typically form complex ions with $$\ce{NH3}$$:

$\ce{Ni^{2+} (aq) + 6 NH3 (aq) -> Ni(NH3)6^{2+} (aq) } \label{10}$

(Video) Qualitative Analysis of Group III Cations Part 1

$\ce{Fe^{3+} (aq) + 3 NH3 (aq) + 3 H2O (l) -> Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3 NH4^{+} (aq) } \label{11}$

The presence of $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$ in the aqueous solution is confirmed by adding dimethylglyoxime ($$\ce{C4H8N2O2}$$) resulting in the formation of a rose red precipitate:

$\ce{Ni^{2+} (aq) + 2 C4H8N2O2 (aq) -> Ni(C4H7N2O2)2 (s) + 2 H^{+} (aq) } \label{12}$

In order to confirm the presence of $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$, the red $$\ce{Fe(OH)3}$$ precipitate is dissolved in $$\ce{HCl}$$ (aq), and then $$\ce{KSCN}$$ (aq) is added to the solution. A positive result is the formation of a dark red solution indicating the presence of $$\ce{FeSCN^{2+}}$$ (aq):

$\ce{Fe^{3+} (aq) + SCN^{-} (aq) -> FeSCN^{2+} (aq) } \label{13}$

The entire analysis scheme is represented in abbreviated form using the follwing flow chart:

Figure 1: GROUP III CATIONS ANALYSIS SCHEME

## Procedure

Chemicals

0.1 M $$\ce{Cr(NO3)3}$$ (aq), 0.1 M $$\ce{Al(NO3)3}$$ (aq), 0.1 M $$\ce{Ni(NO3)2}$$ (aq), 0.1 M $$\ce{Fe(NO3)3}$$ (aq), 6 M $$\ce{HCl}$$ (aq), 6 M $$\ce{HNO3}$$ (aq), 6 M acetic acid, 6 M $$\ce{NaOH}$$ (aq), 6 M $$\ce{NH3}$$ (aq), 1 M $$\ce{NaOCl}$$ (aq), 1 M $$\ce{BaCl2}$$ (aq), 0.5 M $$\ce{KSCN}$$ (aq), catechol violet, dimethylglyoxime.

Equipment

12 small test tubes, 30-mL beaker, beaker tongs, Bunsen burner, 10-mL graduated cylinder, glass stirring rod, small watch glass, dropper pipets, red and blue litmus paper, centrifuge, wash bottle filled with deionized water, 150-mL beaker (for waste solutions).

(Video) Experiment No 6 Analysis of Group III Cations Part 1

For the hot water bath: 250-mL beaker, stand, ring clamp, wire gauze

##### Safety
• The PPE for this lab includes safety goggles, lab coat and nitrile gloves.
• Exercise appropriate caution when using all concentrated acids and bases in this lab as they can cause serious chemical burns to your skin. If any acid comes into contact with your skin or eyes, immediately rinse the affected areas with copious amounts of water for 15 minutes, and inform your instructor.

Waste Disposal

All the waste chemicals generated by this lab are toxic and must be disposed of in the hazardous-waste container in the fume hood. Rinse all glassware directly into the waste container using a wash bottle.

Any unused portion of the unknown sample should be discarded in the hazardous-waste container. Rinse the test tube and return it to the instructor’s bench at the end of lab.

General Instructions

Similar to last week’s procedure, you will analyze a known mixture of all four Group III cations as a positive control experiment. You will then analyze an unknown sample in order to determine which Group III cations are contained within the sample.

• Be sure to label all tubes and solutions because they will accumulate rapidly, and it is very easy to get tubes and/or solutions mixed up.
• Make sure all glassware is thoroughly cleaned and rinsed with deionized water between uses to avoid cross-contamination.
• The centrifuge must be balanced before each use. Balancing is done by placing a test tube containing water opposite to the test tube containing the precipitate in the centrifuge. The two test tubes should have approximately equal weights.
• The pH of a solution is tested by dipping a stirring rod into the solution and then touching it to a piece of litmus paper resting on a clean, dry watch glass. If a solution is acidic it will turn blue litmus paper red. If a solution is basic it will turn red litmus paper blue.

### Part A: Analysis of Known Mixture of Group III Cations – A Positive Control Experiment

Preparation of Known Solution and Separation of $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$ and $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ from $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$ and $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$

1. Prepare a mixture of Group III cations by adding 1.0 mL of each of the following 0.1 M aqueous solutions to a small test tube: $$\ce{Cr(NO3)3}$$, $$\ce{Al(NO3)3}$$, $$\ce{Fe(NO3)3}$$, and $$\ce{Ni(NO3)2}$$. Transfer 2.0 mL of this mixture to a 30-mL beaker and use it for your positive control experiment.
2. Add 2 mL of 6 M $$\ce{NaOH}$$ to the 30-mL beaker containing your positive control solution. Boil the solution very gently (use a pair of beaker tongs to hold the beaker) over an open Bunsen burner flame for about one minute. Note that the time to boil is variable and depends on the volume of solution you have. Do not boil the solution to dryness. If you boil the solution to dryness, then you must repeat this step again.
3. Remove the beaker from the flame and slowly add 2 mL of 1 M $$\ce{NaClO}$$. Swirl the beaker for 30 seconds using your beaker tongs, then gently boil the mixture for about one minute.
4. Again, remove the beaker from the flame and add sixteen drops of 6M $$\ce{NH3}$$. Swirl the mixture, then gently boil for another minute.
5. Transfer the mixture from the beaker into a small test tube and centrifuge in order to separate the solid from the solution. Decant the supernatant solution (containing the chromium and the aluminum) into another test tube and save the solid (containing the nickel and the iron). Save this supernatant solution for further analysis. It contains the aluminum and chromium cations.
6. Wash the solid by adding 4 mL of water and twenty drops of 6 M $$\ce{NaOH}$$. Stir vigorously then centrifuge the mixture. Decant the supernatant solution into your “waste” beaker and discard this solution.
7. Add 2 mL of 6 M $$\ce{HNO3}$$ to the washed solid. Save the contents of this test tube for further analysis. It contains the iron and nickel cations.

Separation of $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ from $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$

1. Slowly add 6 M acetic acid to the supernatant solution saved from Step 5 until it is acidic (test with blue litmus paper).
2. Add 6 M $$\ce{NH3}$$ one drop at a time until the solution just becomes basic again (test with red litmus paper). Now add twenty additional drops of excess $$\ce{NH3}$$. At this point a translucent, gelatinous precipitate of $$\ce{Al(OH)3}$$ should appear in the clear (or pale yellow) solution.
3. Stir the mixture for about a minute to allow the system to reach equilibrium. Centrifuge the mixture, then decant the supernatant solution into another small test tube. This solution must be saved for further tests.
4. To wash the collected solid, first add 6 mL of deionized water to it. Then place the test tube with the solid (and water) in a hot water bath for about two minutes while occasionally stirring the mixture. Check with your instructor if you are unsure about how to set up a hot water bath. Finally, centrifuge this mixture and decant the supernatant solution into your “waste” beaker. Discard the solution and save the solid.

Confirmation of $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$

1. To the solid from Step 11 add four drops of 6 M acetic acid and 6 mL of water. Stir in order to dissolve the solid. Finally, add four drops of catechol violet to the resulting solution. The appearance of a blue solution confirms the presence of $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ in the original solution.

Confirmation of $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$

(Video) Experiment No 6 Analysis of Group III Cations Part 2

1. To the decanted solution from Step 10, add twelve drops of 1 M $$\ce{BaCl2}$$. The formation of a very fine, pale yellow precipitate ($$\ce{BaCrO4}$$) confirms the presence of $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$ in the original solution.

Separation of $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$ from $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$

1. If the precipitate from Step 7 is not completely dissolved, stir it until it is completely dissolved. If necessary, place the test tube in a hot water bath in order to completely dissolve the precipitate.
2. Slowly add 6 M $$\ce{NH3}$$ to the solution until it is basic (test with red litmus paper). You should see a red-brown precipitate of $$\ce{Fe(OH)3}$$ appear when the solution turns basic.
3. Add an additional 20 drops of 6 M $$\ce{NH3}$$ and stir to mix well. At this point the nickel should be dissolved in the solution as $$\ce{Ni(NH3)6}$$.
4. Centrifuge the mixture and decant the supernatant solution into another test tube. Save both the solid and solution.

Confirmation of $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$

1. Add eight drops of dimethylglyoxime to the solution saved in Step 17. The appearance of a rose-red precipitate confirms the presence of $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$ in the original solution.

Confirmation of $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$

1. To the precipitate saved in Step 17 add twelve drops of 6 M $$\ce{HCl}$$. Next, add 4 mL of deionized water and stir well until the precipitate is completely dissolved. Finally, add four drops of 0.5 M $$\ce{KSCN}$$. The formation of a dark red solution confirms the presence of $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$ in the original solution.

### Part B: Analysis and Identification of Group III Cations in an Unknown Sample

1. Obtain a test tube which contains a mixture of Group III cations. Record the ID Code of the sample on your Report Form.
2. Transfer 2.0 mL of the above mixture into a 30-mL beaker and repeat the procedure used in Part A.
3. On your Report Form, construct a flow chart similar to the one shown in the Background. Indicate on the flow chart whether the test for each ion is positive or negative. Then, in space provided, indicate which ions are present in your unknown sample.

## Lab Report: Qualitative Analysis of Group III Cations

Name: ____________________________ Date: ________________________

Lab Partner: ________________________ Lab Section: __________________

In the space provided below construct a flow cart for the analysis of your unknown. Indicate on the flow chart whether the test for each ion is positive or negative:

Unknown ID number: __________________

Ions present in your unknown: ____________________________________

## Pre-laboratory Assignment: Qualitative Analysis of Group III Cations

1. Given the very low value of $$K_{sp}$$ for $$\ce{Cr(OH)3}$$, a precipitate of $$\ce{Cr(OH)3}$$ would be expected if only 6 M $$\ce{NaOH}$$ were added to the mixture of Group III cations in the first step of the procedure. Explain how and why the chromium remains in solution.
1. A solution may contain one or more of the Group III cations. When this solution is combined with $$\ce{NaOH}$$ (aq), $$\ce{NaOCl}$$ (aq) and $$\ce{NH3}$$ (aq) only a colorless solution is obtained with no precipitate evident. Indicate whether each of the following cations is present, absent or undetermined.
• $$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$ _____________________
• $$\ce{Al^{3+}}$$ _____________________
• $$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$ _____________________
• $$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$ _____________________

Explain.

(Video) Experiment #39 Group II Cations

## FAQs

### What is the group reagent for analysis of Group III? ›

The group reagent for third group is NH4OH in presence of: Q. Which of these is the correct group reagent for group cations?

What is qualitative analysis experiment? ›

Qualitative analysis is a method used for identification of ions or compounds in a sample. In many cases, qualitative analysis will also involve the separation of ions or compounds in a mixture. Examples of qualitative tests would include ion precipitation reactions (solubility tests) or chemical reactivity tests.

What is experiment qualitative analysis of cations? ›

Qualitative analysis is the systematic approach that involves precipitation reaction to remove cations sequentially from a mixture. The behaviour of the cations toward a set of common test reagents differs from one cation to another and furnishes the basis for their separation.

How do you separate Group 3 cations? ›

Separation and Confirmation of Group III Cations

Neither iron nor nickel form hydroxo-complex ions and therefore precipitate out as solids. The resulting mixture is centrifuged and then decanted, separating the solids (Fe(OH)3 and Ni(OH)2) from the supernatant solution (containing CrO2−4 and Al(OH)−4).

What is the confirmatory test for Al3+? ›

The dye aluminon is adsorbed by the gelatinous Al(OH)3 precipitate to form a red "lake" and a colorless solution. Although this reaction is not suitable for separation of aluminum ion, it can be used as a confirmatory test for Al3+ after precipitation of Al(OH)3 with aqueous ammonia.

Which reagents are used to detect 3rd group cations? ›

The reagent used is ammonium sulfide or Na2S 0.1 M added to the ammonia/ammonium chloride solution used to detect group 3 cations.

What are the 3 qualitative analysis? ›

Grounded theory, phenomenology and ethnography are three approaches used in qualitative research.

What is an example of a qualitative experiment? ›

A good example of a qualitative research method would be unstructured interviews which generate qualitative data through the use of open questions. This allows the respondent to talk in some depth, choosing their own words. This helps the researcher develop a real sense of a person's understanding of a situation.

What are Group III cations? ›

Al 3 + , Fe 3 + , Co 2 + , Ni 2 + , Cr 3 + , Zn 2 + and Mn 2 + are the cations present in the group third.

What is an example of qualitative analysis in chemistry? ›

Qualitative Analysis is the determination of non-numerical information about a chemical species, a reaction, etc. Examples would be observing that a reaction is creating gas that is bubbling out of solution or observing that a reaction results in a color change.

### What are the two methods used in qualitative analysis in chemistry? ›

Organic qualitative analysis and inorganic qualitative analysis are the two types of qualitative analysis that can be found in the field.

What is common ion effect explain its effect in Group 3 cation analysis? ›

The common ion effect is an effect that suppresses the ionization of an electrolyte when another electrolyte (which contains an ion which is also present in the first electrolyte, i.e. a common ion) is added. It is considered to be a consequence of Le Chatlier's principle (or the Equilibrium Law).

What are the colors of Group 3 cations? ›

Group III precipitates, i.e., Cr(OH)3(s,gray−green), NiS(s,black), Fe2Se3(s,yellow−green), and FeS(s,black) in the mixture are separated as precipitates, and the rest of the ions, i.e, Ca2+, Ba2+, Na+ and K+, etc. remain dissolved in the supernatant, as shown in Figure 5.1.

What charge does a Group 3 ion have? ›

Group III A (13) metals form cations with +3 charge.

How would you test for aluminium ions and observations? ›

A few drops of dilute sodium hydroxide solution react to form a white precipitate with aluminium ions, calcium ions and magnesium ions. However, if excess sodium hydroxide solution is added: the aluminium hydroxide precipitate dissolves to form a colourless solution. the calcium hydroxide precipitate is unchanged.

What are the methods of aluminium testing? ›

Four highly selective and reasonably accurate methods were developed for determining aluminum (Al) concentration in nuclear waste solutions: atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), thermometric titration, and a fluoride electrode and a pH electrode method.

How do you test the presence of aluminium? ›

Sodium Hydroxide solution is added to aqueous aluminum sulfate leading to the precipitation of aluminum hydroxide as a gelatinous white precipitate. The reaction of the test is: Third: Sodium Hydroxide Test Al2(SO4)3 + 3 NaOH → 3 Na2SO4 + 2 Al(OH)3 ↓ (White ppt.)

What reagents are used in qualitative analysis? ›

Many reagents are used in the qualitative analysis, but only a few are involved in nearly every group procedure. The four most commonly used reagents are 6M HCl, 6M HNO3, 6M NaOH, 6M NH3. Understanding the uses of the reagents is helpful when planning an analysis.

What are the principles of qualitative analysis? ›

The principles of qualitative approach could be summarized into three views, i. e., interpretivism, constructivism, and inductivism (Jupp, 2006). 1. Constructivism recognizes that meanings of things are not objectively discovered; rather they are subjectively created and imposed by people in given contexts.

What is qualitative analysis of cations and anions lab report? ›

Qualitative analysis is used to separate and detect cations and anions in a sample substance. Qualitative analysis is the procedure by which one can determine the nature, but not the amount of species in a mixture. To perform a series of tests that isolates then confirms each of these ions.

### What are 3 examples of qualitative data? ›

The definition of qualitative data
• Research and observation.
• Interviews.
• Surveys or questionnaires.
• Focus groups, online forums, or communities.
• Case studies.
Nov 28, 2021

What are 3 qualitative examples? ›

Gender, country name, animal species, and emotional state are examples of qualitative information.

What are 5 examples of qualitative observations? ›

Examples of Qualitative Observations
• Hardness.
• Texture.
• Behavior.
• Temperature.
• Shape.
• Mood or facial expression.
• Flavor.
Nov 9, 2021

What are 5 examples of qualitative research? ›

The most frequently used qualitative research methods are one-on-one interviews, focus groups, ethnographic research, case study research, record keeping, and qualitative observation.

What are 5 examples of qualitative? ›

Examples of qualitative data
• Diary accounts. Diary accounts are collected as part of diary studies. ...
• Documents. ...
• Case studies. ...
• Photographs. ...
• Audio recordings. ...
• Video recordings. ...
• Transcriptions. ...
• Descriptions.
Oct 16, 2020

What are the 7 steps of qualitative data analysis? ›

The Clinical-qualitative Content Analysis technique comprises seven steps: 1) Editing material for analysis; 2) Floating reading; 3) Construction of the units of analysis; 4) Construction of codes of meaning; 5) General refining of the codes and the Construction of categories; 6) Discussion; 7) Validity.

What are the 5 steps to qualitative data analysis? ›

Qualitative data analysis requires a 5-step process:
• Prepare and organize your data. Print out your transcripts, gather your notes, documents, or other materials. ...
• Review and explore the data. ...
• Create initial codes. ...
• Review those codes and revise or combine into themes. ...
• Present themes in a cohesive manner.

What are the six main steps in qualitative analysis? ›

Step 1: Become familiar with the data, Step 2: Generate initial codes, Step 3: Search for themes, Step 4: Review themes, Step 5: Define themes, Step 6: Write-up. 3.3 Step 1: Become familiar with the data. The first step in any qualitative analysis is reading, and re-reading the transcripts.

What do Group III A cations precipitate as? ›

The Chemistry of the Precipitation of the Group III Cations

The ions of Group III are precipitated as their sulfides, or as their hydroxides, from a basic solution of hydrogen sulfide.

Is Group 3 cation or anion? ›

Cation Group III. Cations not precipitated as chlorides or sulfides from dilute acidic solutions, but precipitated as hydroxides or sulfides from alkaline solutions containing ammonia and ammonium ion.

### Which ions in group 3 will precipitate as insoluble hydroxides? ›

Group 3: Base-Insoluble Sulfides (and Hydroxides)

The divalent metal ions Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ precipitate as their sulfides, and the trivalent metal ions Al3+ and Cr3+ precipitate as their hydroxides: Al(OH)3 and Cr(OH)3.

What are 10 examples of qualitative data? ›

10 Examples of Qualitative Data
• Observation Notes.
• Semi-structured interviews. ...
• Open-ended survey.
• Participant diaries or journals. ...
• Portfolios of evidence. ...
• Concept Maps. ...
• Case Studies. ...
• Focus Groups.

What is qualitative analysis of organic compounds experiment? ›

Qualitative organic analysis is an experimental science that provides methods of identifying an organic substance. In general, the analysis of an organic substance is carried out in the following order; *Determined physical characteristics - solid, liquid, colour and odour.

What is qualitative analysis in chemistry summary? ›

qualitative chemical analysis, branch of chemistry that deals with the identification of elements or grouping of elements present in a sample. The techniques employed in qualitative analysis vary in complexity, depending on the nature of the sample.

What are the 4 most common forms of qualitative methods? ›

These methods include document studies, key informants, alternative (authentic) assessment, and case studies.

What are the two most commonly used quantitative analysis method? ›

The two most commonly used quantitative data analysis methods are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

What is common ion effect in qualitative analysis for the precipitation of hydroxides of Group III NH4Cl is added before the addition of NH4OH explain? ›

Thus due to presence of common ion NH4+ in NH4Cl, it supresses the ionisation of weak base NH4OH in order to decrease the OH− concentration so that higher group cations will not get precipitated. This process is called common ion effect.

What is the importance of common ion effect in qualitative analysis? ›

The common-ion effect plays important roles in controlling the pH of a solution, determining the solubility of a slightly soluble salt and thus can control the formation of a precipitate by either reversing the dissociation of the acid, if the acid had already dissociated or reducing the dissociation [10] if the salt ...

What is the application of common ion effect in qualitative analysis? ›

Application of Common Ion Effect

The soaps are precipitated out by reducing the solubility of the soap solution with sodium chloride. For gravimetric measurement, the common ion effect is employed to completely precipitate one of the ions as a sparingly soluble salt with a very low solubility product value.

What do group 3 elements react with? ›

All the group 3 elements are rather soft, silvery-white metals, although their hardness increases with atomic number. They quickly tarnish in air and react with water, though their reactivity is masked by the formation of an oxide layer.

### What is group reagent for Group 3? ›

Third group- Third group cations are Fe3+,Al3+ and the group reagent is NH4OH in presence of Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) .

Do Group 3 elements form negative ions? ›

the ions formed are negative, because they have more electrons than protons. the ions formed have full outer shells. for groups 6 and 7, the number of electrons gained is equal to: 8 - group number.
...
Examples of groups and ion charges.
Group 3 Al 3+ Al 3+
4 more columns

How many electrons does group 3 have? ›

The number of valence electrons
Periodic table groupValence Electrons
Group 1 (I) (alkali metals)1
Group 2 (II) (alkaline earth metals)2
Groups 3-12 (transition metals)2* (The 4s shell is complete and cannot hold any more electrons)
Group 13 (III) (boron group)3
5 more rows
Jun 5, 2019

Is Group 3 positive or negative? ›

Group one is composed of metals that have a +1 charge, while all the metals in groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, and 16 have a charge +2. Then, metals in groups thirteen and fifteen have a charge of +3. Finally, all the metals in group 14 have a +4 charge.

Which is group reagent for detection of group II? ›

Group reagent for the precipitation of group II basic radicals for the qualitative analysis is dil. HCl+H2S. In II group, sulphides are precipitated in acidic medium.

Why hno3 is added in Group 3 analysis? ›

To proceed to III group concentrated nitric acid is added to increase the oxidation number of the ion. Ferric ions can completely precipitate out.

What is group reagent of group 1 in salt analysis? ›

A. H2S gas in the presence of Dil.

What is the group reagent for group IV? ›

3.In group IV, cations are Ni2+,Co2+,Mn2+,Zn2+ and group reagent is H2Sin the presence of NH4OH.

How do you separate Group 2 and 3 cations? ›

The ions of Groups II and Groups III are separated by precipitation of their insoluble sulfides.

Which reagents are used to precipitate group III a basic radicals? ›

In group III, the basic radicals are iron, aluminium and chromium and are precipitated as their hydroxides.

### What is qualitative analysis of salt mixture? ›

Qualitative analysis of a salt Analysis is a chemical technique used to identify the ions present in a salt by analysing its physical and chemical properties and hence determine the identity of the salt. It determines only the presence or absence of a particular ion in a given salt.

Why is nitric acid used in qualitative analysis? ›

In all cases, dilute nitric acid is added to remove any interfering ions that can form precipitate with the added reagent. For example, any carbonate ions present would react with aqueous silver/barium/lead(II) nitrate to form white precipitate of silver/barium/lead(II) carbonate.

Why do we not use HNO3 in titration? ›

Nitric acid is not used as it is itself an oxidising agent and hydrochloric acid is usually avoided because it reacts with KMnO4 according to the equation given below to produce chlorine and chlorine which is also an oxidising agent in the aqueous solution.

Why is ammonium chloride added before ammonium hydroxide for Group III analysis? ›

Reason: Ammonium chloride is added to ensure low concentration of hydroxide ions.

What is the reagent for group II in qualitative analysis and why? ›

Group reagent for the precipitation of group II basic radicals for the qualitative analysis is dil. HCl+H2S. In II group, sulphides are precipitated in acidic medium.

What are group III cations? ›

Al 3 + , Fe 3 + , Co 2 + , Ni 2 + , Cr 3 + , Zn 2 + and Mn 2 + are the cations present in the group third.

Which reagent is used in qualitative analysis of IV group? ›

Group IV cations are calcium (II) Ca2+, strontium (II) Sr2+ and barium (II) Ba2+. Its group reagent is 1M solution of ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3 in neutral or alkaline medium.

Why concentrated solution is required for testing group 4? ›

In precipitating the cations of group IV high concentration of S2− ions is required as OHɵ ions released by NH4OH unite with H⊕ ions given by H2S.

## Videos

1. Experiment 5: Inorganic Qualitative Analysis - Group III Cations
(ChemDispensary UCD)
2. Test for ferric ions (Fe+3 ) in laboratory by Seema Makhijani
(Seema Makhijani)
3. Group 3 Cation Part 2
(Nauli Chemistry)
4. KCC, Fall 20, Chem 12, Group II Ions, Known & Unknown (Part 1)
(KCC Demo Labs)
5. Experient 20: Qualitative Analysis: Identification of Unknown Inorganic Ions
(Creative Studios at The University of Texas at El Paso)
6. KCC, Fall 20, Chem12, Group II Ions, Known & Unknown (Part 2)
(KCC Demo Labs)
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Author: The Hon. Margery Christiansen

Last Updated: 02/08/2023

Views: 5725

Rating: 5 / 5 (50 voted)

Author information

Name: The Hon. Margery Christiansen

Birthday: 2000-07-07

Address: 5050 Breitenberg Knoll, New Robert, MI 45409

Phone: +2556892639372

Job: Investor Mining Engineer

Hobby: Sketching, Cosplaying, Glassblowing, Genealogy, Crocheting, Archery, Skateboarding

Introduction: My name is The Hon. Margery Christiansen, I am a bright, adorable, precious, inexpensive, gorgeous, comfortable, happy person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.